1783, the British recognized American
independence. About forty thousand American
Loyalists who had supported Britain during
the revolution came to Canada as refugees.
Their presence added a significant English-speaking
element to Canada’s population
and led to the creation of New Brunswick
in 1784 and the division of Quebec into
Upper and Lower Canada (now Ontario and
Quebec) in 1791.
relations remained tense between 1783
and 1812 as the result of territorial
disputes, economic rivalry, and British
attempts to control trans- Atlantic trade.
If war came, Canada’s survival
would depend upon the cooperation of
the militia, First Peoples, and a small
garrison of British regulars.