The Livens projector was a simple 8-inch diameter metal pipe set into the ground at a 45-degree angle. A small charge fired a cylindrical bomb containing about 13.5 kilograms of gas up to 1,500 metres away. On impact, the bomb exploded and released the gas. It was a cheap, simple, and extremely effective method of delivering chemical agents in a concentration dense enough to overpower the enemy's gas masks.
Livens Projector Gas Cylinder