Beginning in 1805, Tenskwatawa, a Shawnee mystic, led a religious revival that portrayed Native Americans as a single people with common interests and sparked another wave of resistance against American invasion.
“The Great Spirit bids me to address you in his own words, which are these: … I am the father of the English, of the French, of the Spanish, and of the Indians … But the Americans I did not make. They are not my children but the children of the Evil Spirit … They are numerous and I hate them. They are unjust. They have taken away your lands, which were not made for them.”
— Tenskwatawa, 1805
Painted by George Catlin in 1830 Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison Jr., Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C., 1985.66.279