Victory and Defeat
The Red Sticks feared continuing American encroachment on their land. A road was being built through Muscogee territory, and a pro-American faction adopting European customs was emerging. This led the Red Sticks into war with the United States in 1813. Named for the red war clubs they carried, the Red Sticks enjoyed initial success, winning several engagements and capturing the American outpost of Fort Mims, north of Mobile, Alabama. In 1814, however, future president Andrew Jackson decisively defeated them at the battle of Horseshoe Bend, northwest of present-day Montgomery, Alabama.