peace restored in North America, the
United States and Britain signed the
Rush-Bagot Treaty in 1817 and agreed
to remove most of their warships from
the Great Lakes.
sides retained strong defences on land.
In the 1820s and 1830s, while British
garrisons provided the first line of
defence, military engineers erected powerful
citadels at Halifax and Québec
City and built forts and other defensive
installations at Kingston and along the
Richelieu River south of Montréal.
They dug canals, including the Rideau
Canal between the Ottawa River and Lake
Ontario, and improved roads to facilitate
the transport of troops and supplies.