American Rebels advancing on Quebec, courtesy of Library and Archives Canada, C-8724
Canadian War Museum
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Ottawa, Ontario
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The American Revolution, 1775-1783


United Empire Loyalists and First Peoples Allies

Richard Pierpoint, United Empire Loyalist, illustration by Malcolm Jones, 2005
Richard Pierpoint, United Empire Loyalist
Illustration by Malcolm Jones, 2005
(Canadian War Museum, 1.E.2.4-CGR2)


Loyalists were Americans who supported the British during the American Revolution. They were joined by large numbers of Iroquois, who were independent allies rather than British subjects. Thousands of Loyalists joined the British army. Others endured persecution behind rebel lines. After the American victory in 1783, about 40,000 Loyalists and Iroquois came to Canada.

Loyalist refugees made Canada an English-, as well as a French-speaking country. They settled the new provinces of New Brunswick and Upper Canada (Ontario).