Chronology of Canadian Military History Canadian Military History, Colonial Period, New France, First Peoples, Seven Years War, French Indian War Canadian Military History, British North America, American Invasion, War of 1812, Dominion of Canada, Riel Rebellion, South African War Canadian Military History, World War 1 History, 1914-1918, Canadian Armed Forces, conscription Canadian Military History, World War 2, 1939-1945, Battle of the Atlantic, conscription, invasion, Dday, Normandy, Germany, axis, allies, Hong Kong, Dieppe 1946-today
Canada within the Empire
NAC/ANC C-18,737
British North America
The War of 1812: Invasion Repelled
The War of 1812: Canada Saved
Fortifying Canada
Rebellions in the Canadas
The Fenian Raids
Confederation and Expansion
Creating a Standing Army
Developing the Canadian Nation
The Northwest Campaign
Canada and Imperialism
The South African War
Military Reform



After Confederation, Canada paid for its own defence and raised its first permanent military units.

The 1868 Militia Act ensured Canadian political control over Canadian forces although they were led by a British General Officer Commanding. British garrisons (except for a small detachment at the Royal Navy base in Halifax) left Canada in 1871. Canada then took over the forts at Kingston and Québec and created two permanent artillery units to garrison them. Known as the Permanent Force, these units were the country’s first full-time regular forces. In 1876, Ottawa opened the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston to help professionalize the officer corps. Seven years later it raised permanent infantry and cavalry units, mainly to train the part-time Militia and to act as an internal security force.

Relations with the United States improved after 1871 and, except for rare instances of tension, serious planning against an American invasion was no longer necessary

1868 Militia Act, Permanent Force

pa- 81401

Canadian War Museum
1 Vimy Place
Ottawa, Ontario
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