Chronology of Canadian Military History Canadian Military History, Colonial Period, New France, First Peoples, Seven Years War, French Indian War Canadian Military History, British North America, American Invasion, War of 1812, Dominion of Canada, Riel Rebellion, South African War Canadian Military History, World War 1 History, 1914-1918, Canadian Armed Forces, conscription Canadian Military History, World War 2, 1939-1945, Battle of the Atlantic, conscription, invasion, Dday, Normandy, Germany, axis, allies, Hong Kong, Dieppe 1946-today
Canada within the Empire
NAC/ANC C-18,737
British North America
The War of 1812: Invasion Repelled
The War of 1812: Canada Saved
Fortifying Canada
Rebellions in the Canadas
The Fenian Raids
Confederation and Expansion
Creating a Standing Army
Developing the Canadian Nation
The Northwest Campaign
Canada and Imperialism
The South African War
Military Reform



The creation of the United States profoundly affected Canadian society and constituted a serious military threat.

In 1783, the British recognized American independence. About forty thousand American Loyalists who had supported Britain during the revolution came to Canada as refugees. Their presence added a significant English-speaking element to Canada’s population and led to the creation of New Brunswick in 1784 and the division of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada (now Ontario and Quebec) in 1791.

British-American relations remained tense between 1783 and 1812 as the result of territorial disputes, economic rivalry, and British attempts to control trans- Atlantic trade. If war came, Canada’s survival would depend upon the cooperation of the militia, First Peoples, and a small garrison of British regulars.

American Loyalists, Upper Canada, Lower Canada

NAC/ANC C- 2001

Canadian War Museum
1 Vimy Place
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0M8