years after the surrender of Montreal,
governor Sir Guy Carleton revived the
Canadien militia. This measure was put
to the test when, alienated by British
attempts to raise revenue to pay for
the Seven Years’ War, Britain’s
American colonies rebelled in 1775.
American armies, intent on weakening
Britain’s position in North America,
invaded Canada. One advanced up Lake
Champlain, captured Montréal,
and advanced on Québec. There,
they joined a second army that had made
a difficult overland trek through Maine.
On 31 December 1775, a force of British
soldiers and French- and English-speaking
militia soundly defeated an assault on
Québec City. The Americans remained
outside Québec, suffering from
cold, hunger, and disease. In May 1776,
reinforcements of British regulars and troops hired from the German states of Brunswick and Hess-Hanau arrived by sea and the Americans withdrew.